Jun 02, 2022 - 04:39 pm CDT

Maud Anna Berry Fuller, known nationwide for her work as a public speaker, youth organizer, and mission supporter and known locally for her work in the community and as a death care worker, was born in Lockhart, Texas in 1868.  

After high school, she attended Guadalupe College and Tillotson College - now Huston-Tillotson College - and taught at several different public schools in Central Texas, including some in Austin, for twenty-five years.  

Maud was an active member of Ebenezer Baptist Church at Austin and took part in many organizations associated with the National Baptist Convention of America, even serving as corresponding secretary and then president of the Women’s Auxiliary for forty years. These conventions also served as launch pads for her to introduce the resolutions founding the Girls Auxiliary and the Shepherd Boys’ League. She would go on to found the first national level organizations for Black Baptist youth and write handbooks for organizations like youth groups, church societies, and home and foreign missionary societies as well as founding and editing the national newspaper the Woman’s Helper.  

Black and white portrait of Maud Fuller

Photo courtesy of Fuller-Sheffield Funeral Services

In 1944 she focused her efforts on raising funds for mission projects and went to Liberia the next year to acquire the land to build the mission where she then helped to set up a home for the elderly, published a national women’s magazine, and became a spokeswoman for the black community to many government agencies. In addition to the work of the mission she and her husband helped educate more than twenty-five young men and women from countries ranging from Panama to Liberia. 

Closer to home, she cared deeply for her community. From speaking to the city council on issues that concerned the Black community of Austin, to visiting inmates in jail, and working to get the pensions for aged citizens raised. Along with belonging to clubs and service organizations and serving on the board of a nursing home supported by the King's Daughters.  

Over the course of her career she was given multiple honors, including a doctor of humanities degree awarded her by the Union Baptist Theological Seminary in Houston and the prayer room at Ebenezer Baptist Church here in Austin that she had built was later named in her honor.  

Her influence in the community extended beyond caring for the living as she and her husband William Handy Fuller purchased the N. W. Rhambo Funeral Parlor in 1932. Though they renamed the Funeral Home to Fuller Funeral Home, it allowed them to continue the legacy of Mr. Rhambo, who had been the embalmer of William M. Tears around the turn of the 20th century before he opened his own funeral home in 1911. 

Fuller Funeral Home with cars and people in front on the sidewalk

Photo courtesy Austin History Center

People couldn’t say enough good things about the funeral home after the Fullers took over. They described the space as beautiful and modern with a beautiful display room, a spacious chapel, and  a portable organ that could be used at the cemetery for graveside services. Not to mention wonderful landscaping outside with a fish-pond, colorful flowers, well-trimmed shrubbery, attractive palms, and refreshing shade trees.  

After her husband passed in 1941 Maud went into partnership with Miss C.E.M. Mercer and changed the name of the funeral home to Fuller-Mercer Funeral Home. Then, when Miss Mercer passed, Mrs. Fuller became partners with Mr. Lloyd Sheffield and the funeral home changed it’s name to what it is today: Fuller-Sheffield Funeral Services, Inc.  

Maud Fuller died at the age of 103 on January 26, 1972, in Lockhart and is buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Austin. 

Headstone

 

Apr 28, 2022 - 04:08 pm CDT

Mari Yoriko Sabusawa Michener is well known for her activism and her support of the arts. She was born to Japanese immigrant parents in Las Animas, Colorado on June 17, 1920. Her father died when she was only nine years old, and in 1936 she moved with her family to Long Beach, California where she became active in the Japanese Friendship Circle at her high school, a local girls club for children of Japanese immigrants, and she joined the local Japanese American Citizens league as an officer while attending Long Beach Junior College. 

In the spring of 1942, executive order 9066 prevented her from following her plans of attending UC Berkeley when her family was relocated to Santa Anita for confinement before being moved to the Amache camp in Colorado. 

She was given an early release from the Amache camp after receiving a scholarship to attend Antioch College from the American Baptist Home Mission Society. She focused her studies on political science and international relations while attending Antioch College, serving as chairman of the College Race Relations Committee, working to raise scholarship funds that would allow three outstanding Black students to attend Antioch, acting as a student representative for Japanese Americans, and going through Japanese news and propaganda at the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service in Washington DC as part of Antioch’s cooperative job program as an analyst. 

After college, she moved to Chicago where she worked with the American Council on Race Relations (ACRR), a lobbying group focused on the eradication of racism. The director she worked with was Robert Weaver, who would eventually be appointed the first African American Cabinet official in 1965.

After WWII was over, she began graduate school and studied sociology with a specialization in race relations, which she combined with her experience and work to become Assistant Director at the ACRR and to hold many positions in community and political organizations between 1947 to 1955.

In 1947, she served as the official hostess at a summer institute at the University of Chicago on “Race Relations and Community Organization” that was jointly sponsored by the University and the ACRR and was assigned to conduct preliminary research work in preparation for the institute and she became the first Chair of the new Japanese American Citizens League Midwest District Council. In 1948, she was elected as the first woman president of the Chicago chapter of the JACL and was elected to the National Board of the JACL. This, in addition to being invited by Mary McLeod Bethune, director of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), to serve as an ACRR representative on a national human relations committee sponsored by the NCNW. In 1950 she held the position of Public Relations Chair for the 11th JACL national conference and served on the committee to select the Nisei of the Biennium. Then the ACRR folded, and Mari became Assistant Editor of the American Library Association’s Bulletin while working actively on civil rights in the community. From 1954-55, she represented the JACL on the board of Chicago’s Council Against Discrimination.

She volunteered with a Chicago group that assisted with resettlement of GIs who married Japanese women and in 1954 she was invited, along with other JACL members, to a lunch sponsored by LIFE magazine. At this lunch she met the bestselling novelist James A. Michener. He had been commissioned by LIFE to write a story on Japanese “War Brides” and had hoped the Nisei of the JACL would be able to provide insight and information. Mari up front in her opinion and and told him that she did not like the conclusion of Sayonara, because it made it seem that interracial couples would all face a tragic end just like the couple in the novel had. Despite this interesting start, they clicked and wrote to each other while he traveled for the next few months.  

It wasn’t until he came back to the US the following year that they became a serious couple and were married. James’s writing took them all over the world. They lived in Hawaii while he worked on his 1959 novel Hawaii before relocating to Pennsylvania near James’s hometown for a time and traveling often to Japan. In 1982 they bought a house here in Austin after the Texas governor asked James to write a novel about Texas. A few years later, they were invited to Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka and the couple lived in Alaska for several years while he worked on another book. 

While married Mari Michener focused on daily life, so that he could focus on research and writing. Though she did read his manuscripts. In 1960 she performed with him in a New Jersey summer stock production of the musical South Pacific and played a small role in the 1978 TV miniseries Centennial, adapted from the novel.

She was also the one behind many of the major donations the couple contributed to different organizations: They gifted a collection of 19th-century Japanese woodblock prints to the Honolulu Academy of Art; the Michener Art Collection 376 works of 20th-century American art, to the University of Texas; funding for the James A. Michener Art Museum in Doylestown, Pennsylvania that opened in 1988; established the Mari Sabusawa Michener Endowment to fund all the educational programs at the museum and provided a Mari Michener Docent Award to the teacher, lecturer, or tour guide who put in the most hours. 

And it wasn’t just museums that benefited from their support of the arts, education also got quite a boost from the Micheners. Unsurprisingly, writing and programs that fostered diversity were the focus’. They supported the Iowa Writers Workshop and Swarthmore College, as well as the University of Texas. The Texas Writers Center, later renamed the Michener Center for Writers, began with a gift of $1 million in 1986. The Mari Sabusawa Scholarship Fund at Eckerd College was designed to provide scholarships for racial and ethnic minority students over several years. And, to honor John W. Thomas, who had arranged the scholarship at Antioch College that allowed her to leave Granada, a bequest to the American Baptist Churches, USA established a scholarship fund to assist American Baptists in attending seminars, conferences, and continuing education programs, and encouraging diversity. And though she was not as active with the JACL by this point, she was still a kind of JACL goodwill ambassador and endowed the Mari and James Michener Scholarship for freshman college students under JACL auspices.

Mari Sabusawa Michener died of pancreatic cancer on September 25, 1994, three years before her husband passed and both are buried in Austin Memorial Park Cemetery

 

Mar 16, 2022 - 11:50 am CDT

Known for her work as a model, artist, and as an architect Jean Shepard Houlihan began her accomplishments early in life acquiring skill with all manner of dance, from tap and ballet to modern jazz, and studying piano. Despite her obvious love of music, as a vocalist - and to her own admission - she "couldn't carry a tune in a bucket." On long car trips, when playing "Name that Tune" with her family, Jean routinely stumped everyone in the car since no one could guess the tune she was humming! She became fluent in German and was an exchange student in Germany while still in high school. And though her family moved quite a bit in her childhood, they eventually settled in Lake Jackson, Texas.

Photo of Jean Shepard Houlihan

Photo courtesy of family

For a short while, Jean attended Rollins College in Winter Park Florida, where she met her future husband, Bill Houlihan. In the 1960s, she and Bill moved to Washington, D.C., and she became a model for a mod sixties fashion shop called "Toast and Strawberries." 

Jean Houlihan modeling dress on stepsHoulihan with another model on stepsHoulihan modeling dress in front of building

Photos courtesy of family

During that time, Jean got a Bachelor's in Education from the American University in Washington, D.C. She and Bill were married. After the wedding, she and Bill relocated back to Texas to be close to Jean's family, who had by then been transferred back to the Gulf Coast area through Dow to support the NASA space program in Texas. 

Jean was a grade school teacher for a short time in East Texas, but found their teaching methods in the late seventies outmoded, compared to the modern methods she had learned in D.C. For instance, Jean was a pacifist, and yet, in east Texas in the seventies, principals still used corporal punishment, something Jean was firmly against. Jean began dabbling in antiques and architecture during this time, which eventually led her in a new career direction. Jean and Bill then moved to Austin, Texas and Jean decided to go back to school to become an architect. While in school she also taught drawing at the University of Texas as a T.A. as she was a wonderful artist in her own right. She painted in watercolors as well as making models for her school courses. She also enjoyed doing charcoal drawings and other forms of artwork. 

Jean Houlihan holding daughter

Photo courtesy of family

Jean had just finished her Master's in Architecture, graduating with a 4.0 from UT Austin, and was in her internship at The Barr Company, when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. Jean heroically fought her cancer for three years, from 1983 to 1986, even volunteering to take new medicines just being developed in the hopes that her brave steps to experiment with medicines might help other cancer patients. 

Active in all aspects of her life, even while fighting cancer, Jean was an elder at University Presbyterian church prior to her death. She became a Phi Beta Kappa fellow in 1981, and a member of the Phi Kappa Phi Fraternity. Jean was an Associate Member of the American Institute of Architects, Construction Specifications Institute, and Austin Women in Architecture. 

And though she was still in her internship with The Barr Company in Austin, Texas, just before she passed, and yet she had designed condos, refurbished her own 1920s home, built a "new" Victorian home for a client, and a children's play scape at her daughter's school. Leaving literal marks on Austin's cityscape. 

She is now buried in Austin Memorial Park.

 

Headstone Jean Shepard Houlihan 9 Sept 1947 - 19 April 1986 Quote: If there's another world, she lives in bliss. If there is none, she made the best of this. - Robert BurnsHoulihan daughters at headstone Quote: Life is eternal and love is immortal and death is only a horizon and a horizon is nothing save the limit of our sight - RW Raymond

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Much thanks to Molly L. Shepard for this biography

Nov 12, 2021 - 09:01 am CST

Joe Austell Small Sr. was born in Chriesman, Texas in 1914. 

While his interest in magazines began in grade school, his big step into the publishing world happened when he sold his first article to Reader's Digest in 1946. 

Soon after that he pursued his goals to create his own publication and used his bedroom as his office. 

He then bought Western Sportsman during WWII. 

His most popular publication was True West, unsurprising as it is still in publication today. He began publishing in 1953 when he noticed that every time he ran a letter about Old West badmen in the sporting magazine, his mailbox would overflow. So he decided to create a new magazine that told the history of the American frontier. And because of the popularity of westerns in tv and movies at the time, the magazine took off!

True West Magazine Cover August 1977. 75 cents. Image of woman with horse near large tree branch. Article Titles: In Quest of a Coquillard Wagon; California's Killer Flood; Buried Treasure in Squirrel Gulch; The Mysterious Pinkerton; Uncle Billy Jacob's Story by Walt Coburn; Remembering Walt: Pat Coburn is interviewd about her late husband the "King of the Pulps"

Photo courtesy of True West Magazine

His goal was to share historical facts within his publication as he felt that historical non-fiction was more interesting than the fictionalized stories he was coming across in other publications. So, to ensure the good historical accuracy of the time, he employed historical consultants to ensure his publications were as historically accurate as possible. 

Small also published the magazines Frontier Times, not founded by him, but purchased in 1955, Wanderlust, Old West, Relics, Gold!, Badman, and Horse Tales: True Stories of Great Horses. He would often write editorials for this last one and would sign with his nickname ‘Hosstail’ - derived from his middle name, Austell. 

Small would give many new writers a start in the magazine world through his publications.

Fred Gipson, J. Frank Dobie, and Joe Austell Small Sr. in front of a building

Fred Gipson, J. Frank Dobie, and Joe Austell Small (from left), shown circa 1955. Photo courtesy of True West Magazine

He was known all over Texas and was unsurprisingly friends with other western writers of the time like Fred Gipson, the author of Old Yeller. Walter Prescott Webb and J. Frank Dobie were even known to write for his publications on occasion. 

Small died on March 9, 1994, at seventy-nine after a lengthy illness and is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Joe Austell Small, Sr. Mar. 18, 1914 - Mar. 9, 1994

Oct 12, 2021 - 08:15 am CDT

Best known for her advocacy and work in the field of mental health, Evelyn Maurine Carrington was born in Austin in 1898.

After attending Austin High School, she earned three degrees from the University of Texas: a B.A. in 1919, an M.A. in 1920 and a Ph.D. in 1930, with additional work at the Institute for Juvenile Research, at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, and at Columbia University. 

Between 1930 and 1941 she taught educational psychology at Sam Houston State Teachers College (now Sam Houston State University). Then, from 1941 and 1952 she was on the faculty at Texas State College for Women (now Texas Woman's University). 

She also served for a time as the administrative director for the Children's Development Center in Dallas, as well as psychologist and director of instruction at the Shady Brook schools. She then became staff psychologist at the Children's Medical Center in Dallas in 1955 and during her time there, she lectured at Baylor University College of Dentistry.

She remained with the Children’s Medical Center until 1973 and maintained a private practice in child psychology in Dallas during her tenure there.  

Her career focused mainly on childhood learning - especially as it related to the process of learning to read - the problems associated with aging, and mental health -even sponsoring the Mental Health Club while studying for her PhD. 

Her reputation extended beyond the world of academia. She was a delegate to two White House conferences and a member of the Governor's Commission on aging and needs of the elderly. 

When the Hogg family began working to create the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, Dr. Carrington was asked to join the committee that drafted the plans for the establishment of the Foundation. While working as the secretary of State Mental Hygiene she worked closely with Ima Hogg to draft the plans for the Foundation. 

She also served for a time as vice president of the Texas Society for Mental Health and president of the International Council of Women Psychologists. 

She was a fellow of the Texas Psychological Association and the American Psychological Association and authored publications on the topic of mental health and psychology: Mental Health for Older People and Psychologist Looks at the Adolescent Girl in 1946, The Exceptional Child: His Nature and His Needs in 1951, and was the editor of Women in Early Texas in 1975. 

She died in Austin in October of 1985 and is buried in Oakwood Cemetery with the rest of her family.

 

Headstone Dr. Evelyn M Carrington Beloved Daughter of William Leonidas Carrington and Bertha Bartlett Gray Aug 30 1898 - Oct 4 1985

 

 

Sep 03, 2021 - 01:44 pm CDT

Curtis Kent Bishop was born in Bolivar, Tennessee in 1912 and moved to Texas with his family while still a child.  

He attended Big Spring High School while working part time at the Austin American-Statesman, and after graduating in 1934 he went to the University of Texas where worked on the student magazine the Ranger as the editor and the student newspaper, the Daily Texan as a sports reporter. 

After earning his bachelors degree, he went to work as a reporter for the Austin Tribune and made his job at the Austin American-Statesman a permanent position where he wrote a column called "This Day in Texas" which was syndicated throughout the state. 

During World War II Bishop served with the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service in Latin America and in the Pacific Theater. 

When he came back to Texas he continued his writing career and became known for his books rather than his newspaper reporting. 

He wrote about sports and life in the American West. Several of his westerns were even made into motion pictures. 

In total he wrote more than fifty books, though, some of them were published under a pen name. As well as several hundred magazine articles for youth readers, like Half-Time Hero (1956), and Dribble Up (1956), The First Texas Ranger: Jack Hays (1959), and Lots of Land (1949) which was written with James Bascom Giles. 

Book: Lots of Land, Written by Curtis Bishop from material compiled by Bascom Giles, Commissioner of General Land Office of Texas

Photo courtesy of the Austin History Center

Because of the work he did while writing Lots of Land  with Bascom Giles, the General Land Office of Texas hired Bishop to go through their archives. They were looking for help in preparing their case for the state of Texas during the Tidelands controversy 

- a legal dispute between the United States and Texas involved the title to 2,440,650 acres of submerged land in the Gulf of Mexico between low tide and the state's Gulfward boundary three leagues (10.35 miles) from shore

Bishop continued working for the Land Office after the dispute and at the time of his death in March of 1967, he was administrative assistant in the public relations department. 

Bishop was 55 years old when he died of a heart attack is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone of Curtis K. Bishop, Nov 10, 1912 - Mar 17, 1967

 

Aug 25, 2021 - 02:59 pm CDT

John Coleman Horton was born in 1905 in the city of Monticello, Florida and moved to Wyoming when he was still in school. While attending high school he joined the Wyoming National Guard as part of Troop “E”, 155th Cavalry. 

He graduated with a bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military Academy in New York in 1929 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery. 

Photograph of General John Horton

From there, his military career took him all over the United States and the world. He entered flying training at March Field in California and graduated from Advanced Flying Training at Kelly Field in Texas where he stayed on as a flying instructor until 1931. 

At this point he was transferred to Hawaii where he served as tactical pilot, in addition to being squadron adjutant, mass officer, and supply officer. He also assisted Lieutenant William Cocke in the construction of a sailplane - an aircraft with a wingspan of 60 feet that established a new world record for sustained soaring flight by remaining aloft for more than 21 hours in December, 1931.

He returned to Randolph Field for four years before being transferred to San Diego, California, in 1939 for duty as an Air Corps supervisor at the Ryan School of Aeronautics and commanding officer of the Air Corps Training Detachment at Lindberg Field.

Ordered to staff duty with the newly organized headquarters of the West Coast Air Corps Training Center at Moffett Field, California, in February 1941, he remained with the center when it moved to Santa Ana, California. And as assistant for operations, he was involved in the selection of sites and establishment of new flying schools from New Mexico to California.

Transferred to Roswell, New Mexico a year later, he became director of training for the Advanced Pilot Training and Bombardier Training School, and almost immediately became commander of Roswell Army Airfield and commandant of the school.

In 1945 General Horton entered the Army-Navy Staff College, Randolph Field, Texas and when he completed his course, he was transferred to the U.S. Air Forces, Europe, with headquarters at Wiesbaden, Germany where he served as director of military personnel, deputy for personnel, and assistant chief of staff for personnel.

He moved to London, England in 1948 and was attached to the American Embassy while he attended the Imperial Defense College. After which he returned to the US and was assigned to the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama until he joined the Air Defense Command headquarters, Colorado Springs, Colorado, as deputy chief of staff for personnel in 1952.

Four years later he transferred to Air Force headquarters, Washington, D.C., where he assumed duties as a member of the Personnel Council, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force.

After retiring from the military, he and his family relocated to Austin where his wife’s family home was. He studied business management at The University of Texas and became director of the Austin National Bank. He also spent time in community service, including the Austin Community Foundation.

Headstone Front: Horton   John Coleman, Jr. Sept 13, 1905 - Sept 29, 2001   Virginia Wilmot Roberdeau Feb 23, 1914 - July 15, 1988

He died in 2001 at the age of 96 and is buried in the Oakwood Cemetery Annex here in Austin. 

His decorations include the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Assistant Chief of Staff for operations at Headquarters Army Air Force Western Flying and Training Command, from 1944 to 1945, and the Cloud Banner Award. 

Back of Headstone Military Marker: John Coleman Horton Brig Gen US Air Force. World War II, Korea   Sep 13, 1905 - Sep 29, 2001

Aug 23, 2021 - 03:15 pm CDT

Zachary Thomson Scott was born in December 1880, in Fort Worth, Texas and grew up on his family’s ranch in Bosque County, Texas. He attended a private school near Fredericksburg, Virginia and was taught by his aunts, returning to Texas to attend the University of Texas medical school in Galveston. 

As he was living in Galveston at the time of the 1900 hurricane, he was actively involved in rescuing the many patients that were trapped by the floods.

After graduating in 1903 he began his practice in Clifton, Bosque County, but moved to Austin in 1909. He established the Austin Sanitarium with Thomas J. Bennett where he developed a life-long professional interest in Texas Tuberculosis Association and the treatment of TB, even  instituting the sale of tuberculosis seals in Texas - Beginning in 1907 seals were introduced as a way to help physicians fund tuberculosis hospitals or  sanitoriums. Still a fundraiser for the American Lung Association today the funding the seals provide has been expanded to include other respiratory diseases like lung cancer, asthma, COVID-19, and lung damage due to air pollution and second-hand smoke. 

During World War I, he served as a lieutenant commander in the navy and organized a medical, which was moved to the naval hospital in Gulfport, Mississippi, under his command. 

Portrait of Dr. Zachary Scott

Portrait of Dr. Scott courtesy of the Austin History Center

After the war he returned to Austin and served on the Austin Selective Service Board for many years. And in 1923 he established the Scott-Gregg Clinic with Frank C. Gregg and specialized in the treatment of tuberculosis. 

When the clinic closed in 1930 due to the Great Depression, Scott became Chief of Staff at Brackenridge Hospital where he served until he retired in 1947. 

When he retired he returned to his family ranch near Buda and began to breed cattle, crossing Santa Gertrude with Hereford cattle to form a new breed he called San Gerfords. 

He was also a ruling elder and trustee of University Presbyterian Church, and a member of the board of directors of the Capital National Bank of Austin from its creation in 1934 until his death. And he was active in the American Medical Association and the Texas Tuberculosis Association throughout his time in Austin. 

Dr. Zachary Thompson Scott died in Austin on January 19, 1964, and is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Zachary Thompson Scott, M.D. Dec 25, 1880 - Jan 19, 1964   As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well used brings happy death, Leonardo Da Vinci

 

Aug 20, 2021 - 01:46 pm CDT

Herschel Thurman Manuel was born near Freetown, Indiana, on December 24, 1887. And after graduating from Brownstown High School in 1905 he earned his bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from DePauw University. Following this he earned his Masters in 1914 from the University of Chicago, and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1917. 

As 1917 was also the year the United States entered WWI, known as “The Great War” at the time, Manuel enlisted in the US Army.  When he was discharged in 1925, he began teaching at the University of Texas here in Austin.

Manuel cared deeply about bilingual education and received a grant that would allow him to conduct research specifically on the education of Spanish-speaking children. This resulted in a book, The Education of Mexican and Spanish-speaking Children in Texas in 1930. His follow-up to this came in 1965 with, Spanish-speaking Children of the Southwest: Their education and the Public Welfare

During this time he also began work with the League of United Latin American Citizens, a Texas organization that was founded to counter political disfranchisement, racial segregation, and discrimination of Latin Americans. (Still active today, the LULAC seeks to support the growth of the Mexican-American middle class)  

Manuel would often address LULAC meetings and contribute to its national publication, the LULAC News. He would argue that education was a birthright and that it was the responsibility of the state to provide it. 

Not at all neglecting his teaching responsibilities, Manuel was named supervisor of the University of Texas freshman testing program in 1935. He established the Testing and Guidance Bureau (known today as the Measurement and Evaluation Center) and created a series of bilingual parallel achievement tests in English and in Spanish called the Inter-American tests that were later published by the Educational Testing Service.

Manuel was also made a fellow of  Evaluation and Measurement of the American Psychological Association as well as a Diplomat in Counseling of the American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology. 

Herschel retired from teaching in 1962, but was named Professor Emeritus of Educational Psychology and continued to work as president of Guidance Testing Associates in Austin until he also retired from this in 1975. 

Herschel Thurman Manuel died in March of 1976 and was buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Manuel, Herschel Thurman Dec. 24 1887 - Mar. 21 1976; Dorothy Broad Nov. 1 1898 - Dec. 6 1967

Aug 17, 2021 - 04:29 pm CDT

Known locally as the founder of the Austin Ballet Theater, Stanley Hall was born in Birmingham England in 1917. 

He began training in ballet at the age of twelve when a track and field coach suggested it as support training for sprinting, and with family in the theater it was a natural fit. 

By sixteen he had become an apprentice with the Vic-Wells Ballet after training for years with the Royal Ballet of London, working under Dame Ninette de Valois and Sir Frederick Ashton. 

During World War II Hall served in the Royal Navy on the H.M.S. London as a signalman. Over the course of the war his ship spent 14 months in the North Atlantic escorting Russian convoys and he later joined the Indian Ocean Fleet. While with them he earned a certificate for crossing the equator. He prized this certificate and kept it on display in his home. 

After his service, Hall rejoined his old ballet company, but went on to dance with Britain’s Metropolitan Ballet Company and joined the traveling dance troupe Les Ballets de Paris in London, which took him all over the world. 

He was touring with Roland Petit’s 1949 Carmen when the presenters backed out of the American tour, stranding them in Seattle, Washington. This proved to be a turning point for him as it turned out Petit had a friend in Hollywood, Howard Hughes, who brought the entire company down to film Carmen at the RKO studios in Southern California. Even though the production closed down before it was finished, Hall caught another break when Petit was hired to choreograph Hans Christian Anderson. This production is what launched his twelve year career in Hollywood, Broadway, television specials, and nightclub performances where he was able to work with celebrities like Agnes de Mille, Gene Kelly, Hanya Holm, Mary Martin, Bob Hope, Jane Russell, Cyd Charisse, Abbott and Costello, and so many more. 

By 1966 he was ready to retire from performing and was offered the position of artistic director with the Austin Civic Ballet. He moved to Austin in 1968, also taking a  position with the University of Texas as a ballet teacher. 

He served as artistic director of Austin Civic Ballet until 1972 but split with the board of directors. The conflict publicly focused on Hall’s choice to substitute a production of  Cinderella for the regular production of The Nutcracker with board members contending that The Nutcracker was an American (and Austin) Christmas tradition that provided a major source of annual ticket sales and should be the de facto performance for December. Hall, however, argued that he had chosen Cinderella for performance quality reasons, though there were more than a few rumors circulating that the true reason for his being removed was due to his homosexuality. 

Several other board members, a handful of instructors, and most  of the dancers left along with him.

Hall and the board members, dancers, and instructors who left ACB with him formed the Austin Ballet Theatre in February 1972. The Theatre became known for performing at the Armadillo World Headquarters, a large bar and music hall in South Austin that played rock and country music on most other nights. Despite this, by the next year the monthly shows brought in up to 700 people with each performance. 

Hall left the Theatre in 1986 after a disagreement with the board on financial decisions, and the Theatre closed soon after when they could no longer compete with the rival Ballet Austin (previously ACB).

Over three decades, he gained great renown for the training of a generation of famous dancers and was described as enigmatic, paternal, but also “an isolated man with a veneer of camp humor, a curious blend of movieland theatricality and genteel restraint.” His students described him as a friend and teacher, stating that he taught them not just ballet, but also social skills and even cooking.

Stanley Hall died on June 21, 1994, from a stroke after a fall at the age of 77. He is buried in Austin Memorial Park Cemetery.

And in 2013 he was inducted into the Austin Arts Hall of Fame.

Stanley Hall June 16, 1917 - June 21, 1994   Our teacher, choreographer, mentor, and friend

Apr 28, 2022 - 04:08 pm CDT

Mari Yoriko Sabusawa Michener is well known for her activism and her support of the arts. She was born to Japanese immigrant parents in Las Animas, Colorado on June 17, 1920. Her father died when she was only nine years old, and in 1936 she moved with her family to Long Beach, California where she became active in the Japanese Friendship Circle at her high school, a local girls club for children of Japanese immigrants, and she joined the local Japanese American Citizens league as an officer while attending Long Beach Junior College. 

In the spring of 1942, executive order 9066 prevented her from following her plans of attending UC Berkeley when her family was relocated to Santa Anita for confinement before being moved to the Amache camp in Colorado. 

She was given an early release from the Amache camp after receiving a scholarship to attend Antioch College from the American Baptist Home Mission Society. She focused her studies on political science and international relations while attending Antioch College, serving as chairman of the College Race Relations Committee, working to raise scholarship funds that would allow three outstanding Black students to attend Antioch, acting as a student representative for Japanese Americans, and going through Japanese news and propaganda at the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service in Washington DC as part of Antioch’s cooperative job program as an analyst. 

After college, she moved to Chicago where she worked with the American Council on Race Relations (ACRR), a lobbying group focused on the eradication of racism. The director she worked with was Robert Weaver, who would eventually be appointed the first African American Cabinet official in 1965.

After WWII was over, she began graduate school and studied sociology with a specialization in race relations, which she combined with her experience and work to become Assistant Director at the ACRR and to hold many positions in community and political organizations between 1947 to 1955.

In 1947, she served as the official hostess at a summer institute at the University of Chicago on “Race Relations and Community Organization” that was jointly sponsored by the University and the ACRR and was assigned to conduct preliminary research work in preparation for the institute and she became the first Chair of the new Japanese American Citizens League Midwest District Council. In 1948, she was elected as the first woman president of the Chicago chapter of the JACL and was elected to the National Board of the JACL. This, in addition to being invited by Mary McLeod Bethune, director of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), to serve as an ACRR representative on a national human relations committee sponsored by the NCNW. In 1950 she held the position of Public Relations Chair for the 11th JACL national conference and served on the committee to select the Nisei of the Biennium. Then the ACRR folded, and Mari became Assistant Editor of the American Library Association’s Bulletin while working actively on civil rights in the community. From 1954-55, she represented the JACL on the board of Chicago’s Council Against Discrimination.

She volunteered with a Chicago group that assisted with resettlement of GIs who married Japanese women and in 1954 she was invited, along with other JACL members, to a lunch sponsored by LIFE magazine. At this lunch she met the bestselling novelist James A. Michener. He had been commissioned by LIFE to write a story on Japanese “War Brides” and had hoped the Nisei of the JACL would be able to provide insight and information. Mari up front in her opinion and and told him that she did not like the conclusion of Sayonara, because it made it seem that interracial couples would all face a tragic end just like the couple in the novel had. Despite this interesting start, they clicked and wrote to each other while he traveled for the next few months.  

It wasn’t until he came back to the US the following year that they became a serious couple and were married. James’s writing took them all over the world. They lived in Hawaii while he worked on his 1959 novel Hawaii before relocating to Pennsylvania near James’s hometown for a time and traveling often to Japan. In 1982 they bought a house here in Austin after the Texas governor asked James to write a novel about Texas. A few years later, they were invited to Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka and the couple lived in Alaska for several years while he worked on another book. 

While married Mari Michener focused on daily life, so that he could focus on research and writing. Though she did read his manuscripts. In 1960 she performed with him in a New Jersey summer stock production of the musical South Pacific and played a small role in the 1978 TV miniseries Centennial, adapted from the novel.

She was also the one behind many of the major donations the couple contributed to different organizations: They gifted a collection of 19th-century Japanese woodblock prints to the Honolulu Academy of Art; the Michener Art Collection 376 works of 20th-century American art, to the University of Texas; funding for the James A. Michener Art Museum in Doylestown, Pennsylvania that opened in 1988; established the Mari Sabusawa Michener Endowment to fund all the educational programs at the museum and provided a Mari Michener Docent Award to the teacher, lecturer, or tour guide who put in the most hours. 

And it wasn’t just museums that benefited from their support of the arts, education also got quite a boost from the Micheners. Unsurprisingly, writing and programs that fostered diversity were the focus’. They supported the Iowa Writers Workshop and Swarthmore College, as well as the University of Texas. The Texas Writers Center, later renamed the Michener Center for Writers, began with a gift of $1 million in 1986. The Mari Sabusawa Scholarship Fund at Eckerd College was designed to provide scholarships for racial and ethnic minority students over several years. And, to honor John W. Thomas, who had arranged the scholarship at Antioch College that allowed her to leave Granada, a bequest to the American Baptist Churches, USA established a scholarship fund to assist American Baptists in attending seminars, conferences, and continuing education programs, and encouraging diversity. And though she was not as active with the JACL by this point, she was still a kind of JACL goodwill ambassador and endowed the Mari and James Michener Scholarship for freshman college students under JACL auspices.

Mari Sabusawa Michener died of pancreatic cancer on September 25, 1994, three years before her husband passed and both are buried in Austin Memorial Park Cemetery

 

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Mar 16, 2022 - 11:50 am CDT

Known for her work as a model, artist, and as an architect Jean Shepard Houlihan began her accomplishments early in life acquiring skill with all manner of dance, from tap and ballet to modern jazz, and studying piano. Despite her obvious love of music, as a vocalist - and to her own admission - she "couldn't carry a tune in a bucket." On long car trips, when playing "Name that Tune" with her family, Jean routinely stumped everyone in the car since no one could guess the tune she was humming! She became fluent in German and was an exchange student in Germany while still in high school. And though her family moved quite a bit in her childhood, they eventually settled in Lake Jackson, Texas.

Photo of Jean Shepard Houlihan

Photo courtesy of family

For a short while, Jean attended Rollins College in Winter Park Florida, where she met her future husband, Bill Houlihan. In the 1960s, she and Bill moved to Washington, D.C., and she became a model for a mod sixties fashion shop called "Toast and Strawberries." 

Jean Houlihan modeling dress on stepsHoulihan with another model on stepsHoulihan modeling dress in front of building

Photos courtesy of family

During that time, Jean got a Bachelor's in Education from the American University in Washington, D.C. She and Bill were married. After the wedding, she and Bill relocated back to Texas to be close to Jean's family, who had by then been transferred back to the Gulf Coast area through Dow to support the NASA space program in Texas. 

Jean was a grade school teacher for a short time in East Texas, but found their teaching methods in the late seventies outmoded, compared to the modern methods she had learned in D.C. For instance, Jean was a pacifist, and yet, in east Texas in the seventies, principals still used corporal punishment, something Jean was firmly against. Jean began dabbling in antiques and architecture during this time, which eventually led her in a new career direction. Jean and Bill then moved to Austin, Texas and Jean decided to go back to school to become an architect. While in school she also taught drawing at the University of Texas as a T.A. as she was a wonderful artist in her own right. She painted in watercolors as well as making models for her school courses. She also enjoyed doing charcoal drawings and other forms of artwork. 

Jean Houlihan holding daughter

Photo courtesy of family

Jean had just finished her Master's in Architecture, graduating with a 4.0 from UT Austin, and was in her internship at The Barr Company, when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. Jean heroically fought her cancer for three years, from 1983 to 1986, even volunteering to take new medicines just being developed in the hopes that her brave steps to experiment with medicines might help other cancer patients. 

Active in all aspects of her life, even while fighting cancer, Jean was an elder at University Presbyterian church prior to her death. She became a Phi Beta Kappa fellow in 1981, and a member of the Phi Kappa Phi Fraternity. Jean was an Associate Member of the American Institute of Architects, Construction Specifications Institute, and Austin Women in Architecture. 

And though she was still in her internship with The Barr Company in Austin, Texas, just before she passed, and yet she had designed condos, refurbished her own 1920s home, built a "new" Victorian home for a client, and a children's play scape at her daughter's school. Leaving literal marks on Austin's cityscape. 

She is now buried in Austin Memorial Park.

 

Headstone Jean Shepard Houlihan 9 Sept 1947 - 19 April 1986 Quote: If there's another world, she lives in bliss. If there is none, she made the best of this. - Robert BurnsHoulihan daughters at headstone Quote: Life is eternal and love is immortal and death is only a horizon and a horizon is nothing save the limit of our sight - RW Raymond

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Much thanks to Molly L. Shepard for this biography

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Nov 12, 2021 - 09:01 am CST

Joe Austell Small Sr. was born in Chriesman, Texas in 1914. 

While his interest in magazines began in grade school, his big step into the publishing world happened when he sold his first article to Reader's Digest in 1946. 

Soon after that he pursued his goals to create his own publication and used his bedroom as his office. 

He then bought Western Sportsman during WWII. 

His most popular publication was True West, unsurprising as it is still in publication today. He began publishing in 1953 when he noticed that every time he ran a letter about Old West badmen in the sporting magazine, his mailbox would overflow. So he decided to create a new magazine that told the history of the American frontier. And because of the popularity of westerns in tv and movies at the time, the magazine took off!

True West Magazine Cover August 1977. 75 cents. Image of woman with horse near large tree branch. Article Titles: In Quest of a Coquillard Wagon; California's Killer Flood; Buried Treasure in Squirrel Gulch; The Mysterious Pinkerton; Uncle Billy Jacob's Story by Walt Coburn; Remembering Walt: Pat Coburn is interviewd about her late husband the "King of the Pulps"

Photo courtesy of True West Magazine

His goal was to share historical facts within his publication as he felt that historical non-fiction was more interesting than the fictionalized stories he was coming across in other publications. So, to ensure the good historical accuracy of the time, he employed historical consultants to ensure his publications were as historically accurate as possible. 

Small also published the magazines Frontier Times, not founded by him, but purchased in 1955, Wanderlust, Old West, Relics, Gold!, Badman, and Horse Tales: True Stories of Great Horses. He would often write editorials for this last one and would sign with his nickname ‘Hosstail’ - derived from his middle name, Austell. 

Small would give many new writers a start in the magazine world through his publications.

Fred Gipson, J. Frank Dobie, and Joe Austell Small Sr. in front of a building

Fred Gipson, J. Frank Dobie, and Joe Austell Small (from left), shown circa 1955. Photo courtesy of True West Magazine

He was known all over Texas and was unsurprisingly friends with other western writers of the time like Fred Gipson, the author of Old Yeller. Walter Prescott Webb and J. Frank Dobie were even known to write for his publications on occasion. 

Small died on March 9, 1994, at seventy-nine after a lengthy illness and is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Joe Austell Small, Sr. Mar. 18, 1914 - Mar. 9, 1994

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Oct 12, 2021 - 08:15 am CDT

Best known for her advocacy and work in the field of mental health, Evelyn Maurine Carrington was born in Austin in 1898.

After attending Austin High School, she earned three degrees from the University of Texas: a B.A. in 1919, an M.A. in 1920 and a Ph.D. in 1930, with additional work at the Institute for Juvenile Research, at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, and at Columbia University. 

Between 1930 and 1941 she taught educational psychology at Sam Houston State Teachers College (now Sam Houston State University). Then, from 1941 and 1952 she was on the faculty at Texas State College for Women (now Texas Woman's University). 

She also served for a time as the administrative director for the Children's Development Center in Dallas, as well as psychologist and director of instruction at the Shady Brook schools. She then became staff psychologist at the Children's Medical Center in Dallas in 1955 and during her time there, she lectured at Baylor University College of Dentistry.

She remained with the Children’s Medical Center until 1973 and maintained a private practice in child psychology in Dallas during her tenure there.  

Her career focused mainly on childhood learning - especially as it related to the process of learning to read - the problems associated with aging, and mental health -even sponsoring the Mental Health Club while studying for her PhD. 

Her reputation extended beyond the world of academia. She was a delegate to two White House conferences and a member of the Governor's Commission on aging and needs of the elderly. 

When the Hogg family began working to create the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, Dr. Carrington was asked to join the committee that drafted the plans for the establishment of the Foundation. While working as the secretary of State Mental Hygiene she worked closely with Ima Hogg to draft the plans for the Foundation. 

She also served for a time as vice president of the Texas Society for Mental Health and president of the International Council of Women Psychologists. 

She was a fellow of the Texas Psychological Association and the American Psychological Association and authored publications on the topic of mental health and psychology: Mental Health for Older People and Psychologist Looks at the Adolescent Girl in 1946, The Exceptional Child: His Nature and His Needs in 1951, and was the editor of Women in Early Texas in 1975. 

She died in Austin in October of 1985 and is buried in Oakwood Cemetery with the rest of her family.

 

Headstone Dr. Evelyn M Carrington Beloved Daughter of William Leonidas Carrington and Bertha Bartlett Gray Aug 30 1898 - Oct 4 1985

 

 

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Sep 03, 2021 - 01:44 pm CDT

Curtis Kent Bishop was born in Bolivar, Tennessee in 1912 and moved to Texas with his family while still a child.  

He attended Big Spring High School while working part time at the Austin American-Statesman, and after graduating in 1934 he went to the University of Texas where worked on the student magazine the Ranger as the editor and the student newspaper, the Daily Texan as a sports reporter. 

After earning his bachelors degree, he went to work as a reporter for the Austin Tribune and made his job at the Austin American-Statesman a permanent position where he wrote a column called "This Day in Texas" which was syndicated throughout the state. 

During World War II Bishop served with the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service in Latin America and in the Pacific Theater. 

When he came back to Texas he continued his writing career and became known for his books rather than his newspaper reporting. 

He wrote about sports and life in the American West. Several of his westerns were even made into motion pictures. 

In total he wrote more than fifty books, though, some of them were published under a pen name. As well as several hundred magazine articles for youth readers, like Half-Time Hero (1956), and Dribble Up (1956), The First Texas Ranger: Jack Hays (1959), and Lots of Land (1949) which was written with James Bascom Giles. 

Book: Lots of Land, Written by Curtis Bishop from material compiled by Bascom Giles, Commissioner of General Land Office of Texas

Photo courtesy of the Austin History Center

Because of the work he did while writing Lots of Land  with Bascom Giles, the General Land Office of Texas hired Bishop to go through their archives. They were looking for help in preparing their case for the state of Texas during the Tidelands controversy 

- a legal dispute between the United States and Texas involved the title to 2,440,650 acres of submerged land in the Gulf of Mexico between low tide and the state's Gulfward boundary three leagues (10.35 miles) from shore

Bishop continued working for the Land Office after the dispute and at the time of his death in March of 1967, he was administrative assistant in the public relations department. 

Bishop was 55 years old when he died of a heart attack is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone of Curtis K. Bishop, Nov 10, 1912 - Mar 17, 1967

 

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Aug 25, 2021 - 02:59 pm CDT

John Coleman Horton was born in 1905 in the city of Monticello, Florida and moved to Wyoming when he was still in school. While attending high school he joined the Wyoming National Guard as part of Troop “E”, 155th Cavalry. 

He graduated with a bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military Academy in New York in 1929 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery. 

Photograph of General John Horton

From there, his military career took him all over the United States and the world. He entered flying training at March Field in California and graduated from Advanced Flying Training at Kelly Field in Texas where he stayed on as a flying instructor until 1931. 

At this point he was transferred to Hawaii where he served as tactical pilot, in addition to being squadron adjutant, mass officer, and supply officer. He also assisted Lieutenant William Cocke in the construction of a sailplane - an aircraft with a wingspan of 60 feet that established a new world record for sustained soaring flight by remaining aloft for more than 21 hours in December, 1931.

He returned to Randolph Field for four years before being transferred to San Diego, California, in 1939 for duty as an Air Corps supervisor at the Ryan School of Aeronautics and commanding officer of the Air Corps Training Detachment at Lindberg Field.

Ordered to staff duty with the newly organized headquarters of the West Coast Air Corps Training Center at Moffett Field, California, in February 1941, he remained with the center when it moved to Santa Ana, California. And as assistant for operations, he was involved in the selection of sites and establishment of new flying schools from New Mexico to California.

Transferred to Roswell, New Mexico a year later, he became director of training for the Advanced Pilot Training and Bombardier Training School, and almost immediately became commander of Roswell Army Airfield and commandant of the school.

In 1945 General Horton entered the Army-Navy Staff College, Randolph Field, Texas and when he completed his course, he was transferred to the U.S. Air Forces, Europe, with headquarters at Wiesbaden, Germany where he served as director of military personnel, deputy for personnel, and assistant chief of staff for personnel.

He moved to London, England in 1948 and was attached to the American Embassy while he attended the Imperial Defense College. After which he returned to the US and was assigned to the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama until he joined the Air Defense Command headquarters, Colorado Springs, Colorado, as deputy chief of staff for personnel in 1952.

Four years later he transferred to Air Force headquarters, Washington, D.C., where he assumed duties as a member of the Personnel Council, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force.

After retiring from the military, he and his family relocated to Austin where his wife’s family home was. He studied business management at The University of Texas and became director of the Austin National Bank. He also spent time in community service, including the Austin Community Foundation.

Headstone Front: Horton   John Coleman, Jr. Sept 13, 1905 - Sept 29, 2001   Virginia Wilmot Roberdeau Feb 23, 1914 - July 15, 1988

He died in 2001 at the age of 96 and is buried in the Oakwood Cemetery Annex here in Austin. 

His decorations include the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Assistant Chief of Staff for operations at Headquarters Army Air Force Western Flying and Training Command, from 1944 to 1945, and the Cloud Banner Award. 

Back of Headstone Military Marker: John Coleman Horton Brig Gen US Air Force. World War II, Korea   Sep 13, 1905 - Sep 29, 2001

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Aug 23, 2021 - 03:15 pm CDT

Zachary Thomson Scott was born in December 1880, in Fort Worth, Texas and grew up on his family’s ranch in Bosque County, Texas. He attended a private school near Fredericksburg, Virginia and was taught by his aunts, returning to Texas to attend the University of Texas medical school in Galveston. 

As he was living in Galveston at the time of the 1900 hurricane, he was actively involved in rescuing the many patients that were trapped by the floods.

After graduating in 1903 he began his practice in Clifton, Bosque County, but moved to Austin in 1909. He established the Austin Sanitarium with Thomas J. Bennett where he developed a life-long professional interest in Texas Tuberculosis Association and the treatment of TB, even  instituting the sale of tuberculosis seals in Texas - Beginning in 1907 seals were introduced as a way to help physicians fund tuberculosis hospitals or  sanitoriums. Still a fundraiser for the American Lung Association today the funding the seals provide has been expanded to include other respiratory diseases like lung cancer, asthma, COVID-19, and lung damage due to air pollution and second-hand smoke. 

During World War I, he served as a lieutenant commander in the navy and organized a medical, which was moved to the naval hospital in Gulfport, Mississippi, under his command. 

Portrait of Dr. Zachary Scott

Portrait of Dr. Scott courtesy of the Austin History Center

After the war he returned to Austin and served on the Austin Selective Service Board for many years. And in 1923 he established the Scott-Gregg Clinic with Frank C. Gregg and specialized in the treatment of tuberculosis. 

When the clinic closed in 1930 due to the Great Depression, Scott became Chief of Staff at Brackenridge Hospital where he served until he retired in 1947. 

When he retired he returned to his family ranch near Buda and began to breed cattle, crossing Santa Gertrude with Hereford cattle to form a new breed he called San Gerfords. 

He was also a ruling elder and trustee of University Presbyterian Church, and a member of the board of directors of the Capital National Bank of Austin from its creation in 1934 until his death. And he was active in the American Medical Association and the Texas Tuberculosis Association throughout his time in Austin. 

Dr. Zachary Thompson Scott died in Austin on January 19, 1964, and is buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Zachary Thompson Scott, M.D. Dec 25, 1880 - Jan 19, 1964   As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well used brings happy death, Leonardo Da Vinci

 

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Aug 20, 2021 - 01:46 pm CDT

Herschel Thurman Manuel was born near Freetown, Indiana, on December 24, 1887. And after graduating from Brownstown High School in 1905 he earned his bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from DePauw University. Following this he earned his Masters in 1914 from the University of Chicago, and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1917. 

As 1917 was also the year the United States entered WWI, known as “The Great War” at the time, Manuel enlisted in the US Army.  When he was discharged in 1925, he began teaching at the University of Texas here in Austin.

Manuel cared deeply about bilingual education and received a grant that would allow him to conduct research specifically on the education of Spanish-speaking children. This resulted in a book, The Education of Mexican and Spanish-speaking Children in Texas in 1930. His follow-up to this came in 1965 with, Spanish-speaking Children of the Southwest: Their education and the Public Welfare

During this time he also began work with the League of United Latin American Citizens, a Texas organization that was founded to counter political disfranchisement, racial segregation, and discrimination of Latin Americans. (Still active today, the LULAC seeks to support the growth of the Mexican-American middle class)  

Manuel would often address LULAC meetings and contribute to its national publication, the LULAC News. He would argue that education was a birthright and that it was the responsibility of the state to provide it. 

Not at all neglecting his teaching responsibilities, Manuel was named supervisor of the University of Texas freshman testing program in 1935. He established the Testing and Guidance Bureau (known today as the Measurement and Evaluation Center) and created a series of bilingual parallel achievement tests in English and in Spanish called the Inter-American tests that were later published by the Educational Testing Service.

Manuel was also made a fellow of  Evaluation and Measurement of the American Psychological Association as well as a Diplomat in Counseling of the American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology. 

Herschel retired from teaching in 1962, but was named Professor Emeritus of Educational Psychology and continued to work as president of Guidance Testing Associates in Austin until he also retired from this in 1975. 

Herschel Thurman Manuel died in March of 1976 and was buried in Austin Memorial Park.

Headstone Manuel, Herschel Thurman Dec. 24 1887 - Mar. 21 1976; Dorothy Broad Nov. 1 1898 - Dec. 6 1967

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries
Aug 17, 2021 - 04:29 pm CDT

Known locally as the founder of the Austin Ballet Theater, Stanley Hall was born in Birmingham England in 1917. 

He began training in ballet at the age of twelve when a track and field coach suggested it as support training for sprinting, and with family in the theater it was a natural fit. 

By sixteen he had become an apprentice with the Vic-Wells Ballet after training for years with the Royal Ballet of London, working under Dame Ninette de Valois and Sir Frederick Ashton. 

During World War II Hall served in the Royal Navy on the H.M.S. London as a signalman. Over the course of the war his ship spent 14 months in the North Atlantic escorting Russian convoys and he later joined the Indian Ocean Fleet. While with them he earned a certificate for crossing the equator. He prized this certificate and kept it on display in his home. 

After his service, Hall rejoined his old ballet company, but went on to dance with Britain’s Metropolitan Ballet Company and joined the traveling dance troupe Les Ballets de Paris in London, which took him all over the world. 

He was touring with Roland Petit’s 1949 Carmen when the presenters backed out of the American tour, stranding them in Seattle, Washington. This proved to be a turning point for him as it turned out Petit had a friend in Hollywood, Howard Hughes, who brought the entire company down to film Carmen at the RKO studios in Southern California. Even though the production closed down before it was finished, Hall caught another break when Petit was hired to choreograph Hans Christian Anderson. This production is what launched his twelve year career in Hollywood, Broadway, television specials, and nightclub performances where he was able to work with celebrities like Agnes de Mille, Gene Kelly, Hanya Holm, Mary Martin, Bob Hope, Jane Russell, Cyd Charisse, Abbott and Costello, and so many more. 

By 1966 he was ready to retire from performing and was offered the position of artistic director with the Austin Civic Ballet. He moved to Austin in 1968, also taking a  position with the University of Texas as a ballet teacher. 

He served as artistic director of Austin Civic Ballet until 1972 but split with the board of directors. The conflict publicly focused on Hall’s choice to substitute a production of  Cinderella for the regular production of The Nutcracker with board members contending that The Nutcracker was an American (and Austin) Christmas tradition that provided a major source of annual ticket sales and should be the de facto performance for December. Hall, however, argued that he had chosen Cinderella for performance quality reasons, though there were more than a few rumors circulating that the true reason for his being removed was due to his homosexuality. 

Several other board members, a handful of instructors, and most  of the dancers left along with him.

Hall and the board members, dancers, and instructors who left ACB with him formed the Austin Ballet Theatre in February 1972. The Theatre became known for performing at the Armadillo World Headquarters, a large bar and music hall in South Austin that played rock and country music on most other nights. Despite this, by the next year the monthly shows brought in up to 700 people with each performance. 

Hall left the Theatre in 1986 after a disagreement with the board on financial decisions, and the Theatre closed soon after when they could no longer compete with the rival Ballet Austin (previously ACB).

Over three decades, he gained great renown for the training of a generation of famous dancers and was described as enigmatic, paternal, but also “an isolated man with a veneer of camp humor, a curious blend of movieland theatricality and genteel restraint.” His students described him as a friend and teacher, stating that he taught them not just ballet, but also social skills and even cooking.

Stanley Hall died on June 21, 1994, from a stroke after a fall at the age of 77. He is buried in Austin Memorial Park Cemetery.

And in 2013 he was inducted into the Austin Arts Hall of Fame.

Stanley Hall June 16, 1917 - June 21, 1994   Our teacher, choreographer, mentor, and friend

Historical Biographies of Austin Cemeteries